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As the older housing stock is replaced, air conditioners become more common, and preferred winter temperature settings rise, this gap will narrow. For example, in Chongqing, China’s most populous municipality, average household energy use increased by about 70 percent between 1990 and 1994. S. energy use per unit. Recently constructed residential buildings suffer from poor construction quality. Exterior building envelopes have little insulation, loose single-glazed windows, poor siting, and inferior materials.

Building collapses are not too infrequent, limiting faith in the safety of buildings. Although price remains a critical factor, the concern for quality is gaining. A typical affordable housing unit costs 225,000 RMB (US$28,125) whereas a typical lower-middle dual-income family earns only 30,000 RMB (US$3,750) annually (Duda, Zhang and Dong 2005, Kirchhoff 2006). This means that house prices exceed household income by a factor of more than seven for lower-middle-income families, or double the comparable price income ratios of Western markets.

Master’s thesis. MIT, Cambridge, MA. S. Portland Cement Association. 2004. org> Wernick, I. 2002. Industrial Ecology and the Built Environment, in Construction Ecology. C. Kibert, Chapter One - Sustainability and the Building Sector J. Sendzimir and G. Guy, ed. pp. 177–195. Spon Press, London. Wernick, I. and J. Ausubel. 1995. National Material Flows and the Environment. Annual Review of Energy and Environment 20: 463–492. 7 CHAPTER TWO CHINA – ENVIRONMENT AND CULTURE Leon Glicksman, Leslie Norford, and Lara Greden ISSUE OF GROWTH L.

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AIA - Architectural Photography

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