By Nicole Nau
Latgalian is a local language of Latvia in relevant Europe, on a regular basis utilized by an envisioned variety of 150,000 audio system. Genetically it belongs to the japanese Baltic department of Indo-European. whereas its shut courting to Latvian is clear in easy vocabulary and inflectional morphemes, there also are major changes within the phonology, morphology and syntax of the 2 languages, as a result of divergent improvement throughout the seventeenth - nineteenth c., while Latgalia used to be politically and culturally separated from different Latvian territories. in addition, touch with Slavic languages (Polish, Belarusian, Russian) has performed a massive function within the background of Latgalian.
Typologically salient gains of Latgalian comprise morphophonological concord with an competition of again vs. entrance vowels and tender (palatalized or alveolar) vs. not easy consonants, a wide stock of non-finite verb kinds, genitive vs. accusative marking of direct items, dative marking of basic center arguments in quite a few structures, using non-finite predicates in represented speech, and the lifestyles of a special logophoric pronoun bearing on the speaker of a mentioned discourse.
Nicole Nau is professor of Baltic languages and linguistics at Adam Mickiewicz collage in Pozna?, Poland. She can be the writer of LWM 217: Latvian.
ISBN 9783862880553. Languages of the World/Materials 482. 120pp. 2011
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Extra resources for A short grammar of Latgalian
111 ) Paguojus-a god-a lasH year-L sa-guoja PFX-go:PST:3 desmit broi/er-u. ' (IS) way. ' (IS) Symts 'hundred' and tyukstusa 'thousand' are heads of a noun phrase, they show the respective case assigned to the noun phrase and govern the genitive plural of the noun expressing what is counted. PL beja be:PST:3 Latgol-ys i latgaffsu gaism-ys pijsat-a. PL light-G city-N 'One hundred years ago St. ' (IS} The forms symts and symtu 'hundred' are also used as indeclinable forms, in which case their syntactic behaviour is that of indeclinable numerals like desmit 'ten'.
The indeclinable form of this participle in Standard Latgalian uses the future suffix -s-. In dialects, another indeclinable future participle is found with the future suffix -sk- plus suffix -am, -amu, or -ama. pl darei -sk-uts id cl darei-s-ut darei -sk -am( u) The two past participles are fully declinable (inflect for gender, number, case, and definiteness). The past active participle is built from the past stem with the suffix -us- (feminine singular nominative -us-), which triggers morphophonological harmony: the soft stems of the e-conjugation are turned into a hard shape.
The following participles may be used in this function (forms in brackets are less frequent variants): non-reflexive: dare it 'do' (present stem dor-, past stem darej-, third stem darei-) f. sg. sg. sg present tur-ts tur-ut-es tur-ut-ts tur-ut-ts tur-utts (tur-us-Ts) (tur-us-uos) future ture-sk-ts ture-sk-ut-es ture-sk-ut-ts ture-sk-ut-ts ture-s-utTs (ture-sk-us-Ts) (ture-sk-us-uos) past turiej-ts turiej-us-es turiej-us-ts turiej-us-uos The indeclinable forms of the present and future tenses are found more often in modern texts, while in traditional texts the declinable present and future participles prevail.
A short grammar of Latgalian by Nicole Nau