By Johnny Tjia
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Extra info for A grammar of Mualang : an Ibanic language of western Kalimantan, Indonesia
O. cracker made from glutinous rice ‘you’ (2s. o. o. o. 2 displays the four vowels available in Mualang. 2: Vowel phonemes In (2-3) (near) minimal pairs are presented in initial, medial and final position. The three vowels /i/, /u/, and /a/ occupy all positions in the word, whereas the schwa never appears word-initially, word-finally, and in the monosyllabic word. 2 Word initially the frequency of the postploded nasals is low. Thus far I have not been able to find a valid contrast in word initial position for palatal nasals /ْ/ and /ْ’/.
In these clusters, syncopation occurs relatively independent of speech tempo, while also some of the clusters seem to be considered as genuine consonant clusters by native speakers rather than reduced syllables. Examples of these are mpliaw ‘(tailless) gibbon’, p֙aw ‘proa’. : /pђsta/ ‘feast’, /bђ֙sih/ ‘clean’, /bђ֙kat/ ‘blessing’, /tђ֙bay/ ‘to fly’, /kђ֙ja/ ‘to work’, /ցђ֙ցasi/ ’name of a ghost’. As the examples mpliaw and ֊kra֊an show, even sequences of three consonants occur when a root already contains a sequence nasal—voiceless stop, hence NC1C2V2; another example is /mplawak/ ‘spider’.
Mualang has (N)(C)V(C) structure in initial syllables, and (C)V(C)(C) in noninitial syllables. The consonant cluster in (C)VCC occurs only word-finally in a few words, in which the final C is a glottal stop. Disyllabic roots are very common, followed by tri- and monosyllabic ones. By default, stress is penultimate, but it may shift to ultimate syllables under certain intonational contours. There are some minor phonological dialectal variations in the Ulu (Upstream) and the Ili’ (Downstream) speech.
A grammar of Mualang : an Ibanic language of western Kalimantan, Indonesia by Johnny Tjia