By Morris Salkoff
1. desk of symbols, pxi; 2. Preface, pxiii; three. 1. advent, p1; four. 2. significant sentence buildings; the verb; the article, p25; five. three. The Noun word, p119; 6. four. Adjuncts, p167; 7. five. Conclusions; purposes, p313; eight. References, p335; nine. Index, p339
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Extra info for A French-English grammar : a contrastive grammar on translational principles
Max doesn't know) what is hermeneutics; → (Max doesn't know) what hermeneutics is In (7)a, French que tV Sbj is inverted to which Sbj tV; in (7)b, the inversion ce que tV Sbj in the French indirect question is inverted to what Sbj tV in order to obtain the correct English word order. The Obj tV Sbj order is also observed in a subordinate clause headed by comme (as) serving as an inserted (parenthetical) clause, usually at the end of a sentence: (8)a Ph, comme en témoigne son attitude ≠*S, as to it attests his attitude; → 5, as his attitude attests b Ph, comme le montrent ses observations ≠*S, as it show his observations; → S, as his observations show The pronoun le (it) or en (to it; or more generally, of it) in this type of inserted clause must be deleted in English translation (cf.
23). I have used the following two approximations in order to accomplish the goal of formalization. , a prepositional phrase Prep N, in which the grammatical categories are made to vary. We shall see that it frequently happens that, if the preposition is held constant, then several different translations of the prepositional phrase are available for various values of the noun N. If these values of the noun could be collected into definable semantic sub-classes Ni, then the appropriate translation, among all those available for Prep N, could be associated with each Prep Ni.
However, deciding which translation is appropriate on the basis of the meaning of sentence continuations or neighboring sentences is so arduous a task that the simplest solution is to present the approximation of parallel translations, as in (17)a. 24) cannot be represented by a satisfactory passe-partout translation. Two different translations of dès are required, according to the nature of the sentence containing dès Nt: (18)a Dès lundi, je partirai pour l'Italie → As of Monday, I will leave for Italy b Dès lundi, je travaillerai à mi-temps → From Monday on, I shall work half time There is no single translation that can suggest both the relatively punctual as of and the more durative from...
A French-English grammar : a contrastive grammar on translational principles by Morris Salkoff