By Shi Xu
Shi-xu opinions universalism in discourse experiences when it comes to the cultural results of its present white, western perspective and advocates a culturally pluralist strategy, a thought and learn technique from an leading edge place among japanese and Western cultures. functional study options are illustrated through examples drawn from culturally broad ranging discourses.
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Additional info for A Cultural Approach to Discourse
Power can take at least two forms. One is the asymmetrical relation between individual, collective or institutional actors (for example, the Discourse and Reality 29 relations between a boss and employee, a parent and a child, or West European and Third World countries); this consists in the context or background of action. Foucault (1980) has called it ‘relations of forces’. Another is the purpose, or the effect, of getting others under control (for example, silencing, deception, ridicule, intimidation, domination, oppression, exclusion, discrimination or resistance).
They can appear in different modes (written, spoken, singing, signing) and medium (audio and visual, hence journalism, ﬁlm, digital media). Further, they can be different in kind (music, ﬁne art, dance, or indeed linguistic communication, which can be further divided into genres of ordinary conversation, ﬁction, legal documents and so on). What is said before, what is said after, how it is said (pitch, tone, laughter and so on), gesture and posture, are all related to the text in question and important for the researcher’s sensemaking.
Often, even what is said is of no importance, but the fact that something is said, in particular ways, may serve to establish or maintain a certain social bond. Think of greetings or exchange of pleasantries. As part of the process of speaking of and acting upon the world, speakers and listeners, writers and readers, may interrelate and interconnect each other and still others; they may be creating, maintaining or transforming relationships of various kinds. Consequently, participants in any discourse situation become intermingled: ‘they’ may turn out to be part of ‘us’, and ‘we’ part of ‘them’.
A Cultural Approach to Discourse by Shi Xu